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Masters in Educational Practice: Child and adolescent development 0-19


Neuroscience and education working together



Throughout this topic, you have been encouraged to reflect on the significance of neuroscience in education. The evidence is accumulating to suggest that: the brain is not fixed and separable into functional components; children rarely fit neatly under ‘labels’; neural connections are constantly transforming.

In essence, the brain is a highly unique, complex interaction of neural networks that are visible as individual children in the classroom. The implications of neuroscience for education are that as the next generation of teachers, you will need to be information and knowledge interpreters and translators; this means having flexible tools. Neuroscientists need to work with schools. Schools need to have the evidence for actions and intervention but in a format they can use effectively.

Additional materials

Books and articles

Johnson, S., Wolke, D., Hennessy, E., Smith, R., Trikic, R. and Marlow, N. (2009). Academic attainment and special educational needs in extremely preterm children at 11 years of age: the EPICure Study. Archives of Disease in Childhood. ISSN 0003-9888

Other publications: EPICure publications

Kirby, A., Woodward, S., Jackson, Y., Wang, M. A. and Crawford. (2010). A double-blind, placebo-controlled study investigating the effects of omega-3 supplementation in children aged 8–10 years from a mainstream school population. Research in Developmental Disabilities; 718–730

Liu, J., Raine, A., Venables, P. H. and Mendnick, S. A. (2004). Malnutrition at age 3 years and externalising behaviour problems at ages 8, 11, and 17 years. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 161(11); 2005–13

Gesch, G. B., Hammond, S. M., Hampson, S. E., Eves, A., and Crowder, M. J. (2002). Influence of supplementary vitamins, minerals and essential fatty acids on the antisocial behaviour of young adult prisoners. Randomised, placebo-controlled trial. British Journal of Psychiatry, 181; 22–8

Benton, D. and ILSI Europe a.i.s.b.l. (2008). The influence of children’s diet on their cognition and behaviour. European Journal of Nutrition, 47; 25–27

Website resources

Foetal Alcohol Syndrome information
FAS Aware UK

Provincial Outreach Program

Provincial Outreach Program - Learning Resources

Patient.co.uk - Fetal Alcohol Syndrome

What are amphetamines?
Xalex - What are amphetamines?

Facts on prematurity
Patient - Premature babies and their problems

Changing diets
Daily Mail - Omega 3 'significantly' improves behaviour of hyperactive children

New findings about genes
Wellcome Trust - Study finds first genetic link to ADHD

Epigenetics - Supplemental Materials


Andersen, S. L. (2005). Stimulants and the developing brain. Trends in Pharmacological Sciences, 26(5), 237–243. doi: 10.1016/j.tips.2005.03.009

Bar-David, Y., Urkin, J., & Kozminsky, E. (2005). The effect of voluntary dehydration on cognitive functions of elementary school children. ActaPædiatrica, 94(11), 1667–1673. doi: 10.1080/08035250500254670

Casey, B. J., Giedd, J. N., & Thomas, K. M. (2000). Structural and functional brain development and its relation to cognitive development. Biological Psychology, 54(1–3), 241–257. doi: 10.1016/S0301-0511(00)00058-2

Clarren, S. K., (1981). Recognition of fetal alcohol syndrome. JAMA: The Journal of the American Medical Association, 245(23), 2436–2439. doi: 10.1001/jama.1981.03310480052033

Delazer, M., Ischebeck, A., Domahs, F., Zamarian, L., Koppelstaetter, F., Siedentopf, C. M., Felber, S. (2005). Learning by strategies and learning by drill-evidence from an fMRI study.NeuroImage, 25(3), 838–849. doi: 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2004.12.009

Fitzgerland, M., & Corvin, A. (2001).Diagnosis and differential diagnosis of asperger syndrome. Advances in Psychiatric Treatment, 7, 310–318.

Fletcher, P. C., Stephenson, C. M. E., Carpenter, T. A., Donovan, T., & Bullmore, E. T. (2003). Regional brain activations predicting subsequent memory success: An event-related fMRI study of the influence of encoding tasks. Cortex, 38(4-5), 1009–1026.

Fombonne, E., Zakarian, R., Bennett, A., Meng, L., & McLean-Heywood, D. (2006). Pervasive developmental disorders in montreal, quebec, canada: Prevalence and links with immunizations. Pediatrics, 118(1), 139.

Gaines, R., & Missiuna, C. (2007). Early identification: Are speech/language-impaired toddlers at increased risk for developmental coordination disorder? Child: Care, Health and Development, 33(3), 325–332. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2214.2006.00677.x

Gazzaniga, M. S. (Ed.). (1995). The cognitive neurosciences. Cambridge: MA: MIT Press.

Gillberg, C. (2010). The ESSENCE in child psychiatry: Early symptomatic syndromes eliciting neurodevelopmental clinical examinations. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 31(6), 1543–1551.

Gureasko-Moore, S., Dupaul, G. J., & White, G. P. (2006).The effects of self-management in general education classrooms on the organizational skills of adolescents with ADHD. Behavior Modification, 30(2), 159–183. doi: 10.1177/0145445503259387

Huttenlocher, P. R. (1979). Synaptic density in human frontal cortex-developmental changes and effects of aging. Brain Research, 163(2), 195–205. doi: 10.1016/0006-8993(79)90349-4

Information Centre for Health and Social Care. (2005). Prescribing monitoring report for quarter 2: 2004–2005, UK: IC prescription subscribing unit. ().

Johnson, S., Wolke, D., Hennessy, E., & Marlow, N. (2011). Educational outcomes in extremely preterm children: Neuropsychological correlates and predictors of attainment. Developmental Neuropsychology, 36(1), 74–95. doi: 10.1080/87565641.2011.540541

Kaplan, B. J., Wilson, B. N., Dewey, D., & Crawford, S. (1998). DCD may not be a discrete disorder. Human Movement Science, 17, 471–490.

Kaufmann, L., Handl, P., & Thöny, B. (November/December 2003). Evaluation of a numeracy intervention program focusing on basic numerical knowledge and conceptual knowledge. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 36(6), 564–573. doi: 10.1177/00222194030360060701

Kosslyn, S. M. (2005). Mental images and the brain. Cognitive Neuropsychology, 22(3–4), 333–347. doi: 10.1080/02643290442000130

Lecavalier, L. (2006). Behavioral and emotional problems in young people with pervasive developmental disorders: Relative prevalence, effects of subject characteristics, and empirical classification. Journal of Autism Developmental Disorders, 36(8), 1101.

Luna, B. (2004). Algebra and the adolescent brain. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 8(10), 437–439. doi: 10.1016/j.tics.2004.08.004

Pennington, B., & Bishop, D. (2009). Relations among speech, language, and reading disorders. Annu Rev Psychol, 60, 283. 

Price, G. R., Holloway, I., Räsänen, P., Vesterinen. M., & Ansari, D. (2007). Impaired parietal magnitude processing in developmental dyscalculia. Current Biology, 17(24) doi: 10.1016/j.cub.2007.10.013

Robison, L. M., Sclar, D. A., Skaer, T. L., & Galin, R. S. (1999). National trends in the prevalence of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and prescribing of methylphenidate among school-age children: 1990-1995. Clinical Paediatrics, 38, 209–217.

Salmon, G., & Kirby, A. (2008). Schools: Central to providing comprehensive CAMH Services in the future? Child and Adolescent Mental Health, 13(3), 107–114.

Shaywitz, S. E. (1998). Dyslexia. N Engl J Med, 338(5), 307–312. doi: 10.1056/NEJM199801293380507

Sowell, E. R., Peterson, B.S., Thompson, P.M., Welcome, S.E., & Henkenius, A.L., Toga, A.W. (2003). Mapping cortical change across the human life span. Nature Neuroscience, 6, 309–315. doi: 10.1038/nn1008

Sowell, E. R., Trauner, D. A., Gamst, A., & Jernigan, T. L. (2002). Development of cortical and subcortical brain structures in childhood and adolescence: A structural MRI study. Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology, 44(1), 4–16. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-8749.2002.tb00253.x

Willcutt, E. G., Pennington, B. F., Olson, R. K., & DeFries, J. C. (2007). Understanding comorbidity: A twin study of reading disability and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. American Journal of Medical Genetics Part B: Neuropsychiatric Genetics, 144B(6), 709–714. doi: 10.1002/ajmg.b.30310

Learning pack contents

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